Under the Canadian Constitution, the provinces take on the responsibility for education in Canada, as each province sets its own educational system. This means that there are some differences between education systems from one province to another, but they are all subject to the main educational standards in Canada.
The local authority in each region finances its educational system from the kindergarten stage until the completion of secondary school, meaning that the study is free of charge in those stages.
The state is not responsible for financial support for university education, and this is reflected in the number of students with university degrees, as statistics indicate that 90% of the Canadian population have a high school diploma and that one out of every seven people holds a university degree. Canadian spending on education is about 7% of GDP
The Canadian education system includes the following main levels:
First: pre-school education, i.e. kindergarten, which is available for young children aged 4 and 5 years old, and is managed and financed by the local authority
Second: The undergraduate education system is divided into three stages:
The primary school includes grades from the first to the sixth, and in some schools it may include the seventh and eighth grade.
The first grade is registered at the age of six years.
Middle School: It includes the seventh and eighth grade, noting that the middle school and its classes may be integrated within the primary school
Secondary school: from the ninth grade to the twelfth grade, except for secondary education in the province of Quebec, which ends up to the eleventh grade, and the curricula in secondary education include a mixture of academic and craft subjects, with a minimum passing score of 50% and a major passing score of 100%
In Canada, there is no federal ministry, but each province has a ministry of education, and the curricula and methods of education are similar in all regions of Canada, but they may differ somewhat to reflect the specificity, history, culture and geography of that region.
The school calendar is from September to the end of June of each year. Education is compulsory up to 18 years old, and in some cases, some districts grant exceptions to dropping out of school at the age of 14.
In Canada, there is no ministerial exam for preparatory school, i.e. similar to the baccalaureate in Iraq, but exams are taken by teachers who teach the subjects chosen by the student each semester and throughout the intermediate and secondary levels, except for two subjects in which the exam is central:
(Education Quality and Accountability Office) EQAO means the mathematics in which the exam is taken in the sixth stage of primary school and the English language subject (literacy) in which the student can be examined from the tenth grade until the twelfth stage of secondary school.
Third, post-secondary education (university education)
The university education system in Canada includes educational institutions partially subsidized by the government and private educational institutions, including community colleges and institutes of technology, craft and vocational colleges, language institutes and schools, universities and university colleges.
Canadian universities enjoy a global reputation and scientific sobriety in many study programs and branches of knowledge thanks to the training and advanced programs provided by their educational institutions, technological and professional skills in the field of innovation and leadership in the development of educational technologies. University in Canada has many advantages, the most important of which are:
– Multiple university study programs that suit the mental abilities and personal tendencies of each student.
Flexibility of administrative and academic procedures in accepting, evaluating, and preparing students.
It provides the appropriate environment for learning, research and expression that infuses the student with a spirit of innovation, creativity and excellence.
Availability of advanced scientific and technical capabilities such as laboratories, libraries, equipment, professors and qualified technicians.
The independence of scientific institutions from the state or federal government.
It includes the following levels
Universities: In Ontario and the Atlantic provinces, the duration of university study is three to four years, after which the graduate is awarded a bachelor’s degree or a bachelor’s degree with honors for graduates of universities whose study period is four years. In Western Canada, the duration of study is four years to award a bachelor’s degree or a bachelor’s degree with honors. With regard to studying after the baccalaureate stage (postgraduate studies), the majority of Canadian universities grant the following certificates:
a . A higher diploma, with a duration of one or two years
NS . The duration of the master’s degree is two to three years, and it may be either in courses or a combination of research and courses.
NS. A doctorate and a duration of four to five years after the master’s.
University colleges: It is one of the components of the Canadian university system. Its study is characterized by a combination of the theoretical, experimental and literal framework, and the study period in it is between 2 to 3 years, leading to a diploma or a bachelor’s degree if the period is four years, or certificates are granted that qualify the graduate to enter universities.
Community colleges and technical colleges: The study is focused on craft and training issues to provide qualified cadres to work in the sectors of business administration, industry and services. The study period is 1-2 years, from which the graduate is awarded a certificate of practice or an applied diploma.
Conditions for admission to Canadian universities
Admission requirements may differ from one college to another, but there are common conditions explained as follows: